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Muscle Gain and Exercise Summary
These supplements may affect muscle mass or performance in athletic activities. Supplements that affect muscle mass may do so by affecting the rate of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown directly, or indirectly by influencing the amount of resistance exercise that people are able to do. Supplements that affect exercise performance may do so through influencing energy production and usage, or the fatiguing effects of exercise on muscular and neurological function.
Supplements in this category may be stimulatory like caffeine, increase ATP availability like creatine, reduce the oxygen requirements of metabolism and increase vasdilation like nitrate, increase muscle protein synthesis like the various protein powders, and reduce muscle soreness due to exercise like certain antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds.